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Mathematics vis-à-vis Science    
     
Where is the science?    
     

While it is easy to be critical of the dominant role of mathematics in modern cosmology, this is not to say that math is unimportant. Far from it. The point is that empirical evidence should come first, and that mathematical modelling should follow to ensure some basis in reality. In other words, the role of mathematics should be ancillary, not dominant.

This having been said, the father of Plasma Physics, Hannes Alfven, was always quick to point out that plasmas have a tendency to ignore the elegant laws of mathematics. Likewise, it certainly seems that many cosmologists prefer to look the other way when it comes to space plasmas and their contemptuous behaviour. After all, space was supposed to be a near perfect vacuum, and dominated by gravity ... not pesky plasmas and electromagnetism.

  “We have to learn again that science without contact with experiments is an enterprise which is likely to go completely astray into imaginary conjecture.” Hannes Alfvén
     
Philopsohy is dead?    
     

Well, Stephen Hawking is certainly fond of saying as much.

“Philosophy is dead ... Philosophers have not kept up with modern developments in science. Particularly physics.” S. Hawking

Could such a simplistic and generalised statement reveal a fear of scrutiny? Sure, there can be complex and wordy aspects to philosophy, but ultimately most philoshophy boils down to three simple questions: What do we know? How do we know it? and, How sure can we be?

In respect of modern math-based cosomology, perhaps these three questions can be simplified into just one: Is mathematics really an infallible tool for establishing universal truthes?

  "Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little." Bertrand Russell
     
Wiley Miller math cartoon   "Maths must be ancillary, not dominant, as the intellectual stupor of the Aristotelian outlook gives way to a Platonic curiosity and acceptance of what is."
Rens Van der Sluijs,
Plasma Mythologist -
www.mythopedia.info
     
You can run but you can't hide!    
     

There are many who display something akin to a religious devotion for math based theories, and prefer to side-step the philosophical issues, very often by ignoring or dismissing them. However, there are more presssing issues at hand, and these are not so easily ignored.

There is a new mathematician on the scene. He packs a punch to match his credentials, and he has a very low tolerance threshold for handwaving and equivocation. Thus far he has made light-work of apologists for mathematical cosmology. The problems he has highlighted are mathematical, not philosophical. In short, there is no longer any hiding place for the true-believers.

 

"Unthinking respect for authority is the greatest enemy of truth." Albert Einstein

     
The Tasmanian Devil    
     
Stephen J. Crothers is a gifted mathematician from Tasmania. Inevitably, some have nicknamed him the Tasmanian Devil.    
     
Below are a few links to some of his work exposing fatal flaws in math-based cosmology.    
     
Black Hole and Big Bang:  A Simplified Refutation    
     

The General Theory of Relativity is notorious for complicated mathematics. This is an impediment to many seeking to understand the likes of black hole and big bang theories, but perhaps convenient to those who might have something to hide.

Crothers explains the salient facts in simple terms without recourse to confusing math. It becomes easy to understand why black hole theory and big bang cosmology are mutually exclusive ...and ultimately, therefore, why General Relativity is itself inconsistent.

  "Science is the belief in the ignorance of the experts." Richard Feynman
     
Black Hole and Big Bang: A Simplified Refutation    
     
A Brief History of Black Holes    
     
The brief and exotic history of alleged black holes has come to an end, although 'the experts' will no dubt be touting them for some time to come.    
     

Progress in Physics: A Brief History of Black Holes

Black Holes, Unicorns, and All That Jazz

   
     
Stephen J. Crothers at Plasma-Resources.com    
     
Click here for a more comprehensive collection of Stephen J. Crothers papers, hosted by the Plasma Resources web site.    
     
"There has been a deliberate suppression of important scientific papers by the community of physicists and astronomers concerning the black hole, beginning with the original paper by Karl Schwarzschild of 1916, evidently for vainglory, money and self-aggrandisement. I bring you free access to those papers, and others of relevance, in the hope that this fraud can be exposed and physics restored to a rational search for knowledge. The black hole has no foundation in theory whatsoever. Neither Newton's theory nor Einstein's theory predict it. In fact, both theories preclude it, contrary to what the orthodox relativists claim." Stephen J. Crothers   "Mathematics has become the lubricant for hammering sqaure pegs into round holes." David Drew
     
The alleged Black Hole pictured in 2019    
     

Stephen Crothers, pictured right, has the following to say in respect of the claimed Black Hole pictures taken in March 2019:

It is not a discovery at all!

This is how astronomers and cosmologists do science: fraud by means of mass-media induced mass-hysteria. It beggars belief. Think about it: according to the astronomers and cosmologists the finite mass of their black hole is concentrated in a 'physical singularity' of zero volume, infinite density, and infinite gravity. But no finite mass has zero volume, infinite density, and infinite gravity, anywhere!

Similarly, the astronomers and cosmologists assign to their black hole two different escape speeds (v_esc = 0 metres per second and v_esc = c = 300,000,000 metres per second, and in the same equation) and no capacity for an escape speed (since nothing can even leave), simultaneously, at the same place (at the 'event horizon'). But nothing can have two different escape speeds and no capacity for an escape speed, simultaneously, at the same place! (See [1]). Furthermore, the astronomers and cosmologists assert that the escape speed at the event horizon is the speed of light, yet light cannot either leave or escape; indeed, nothing, they say, can even leave the event horizon. But since light travels at the speed of light, which is the escape speed at the event horizon, light must both leave it and escape! And, moreover, anything else can leave.

On the mathematical level, the black hole is conjured by violations of geometry. Geometrically speaking, the theory of black holes moves a sphere originally centred at the origin of a coordinate system to some other place in that same coordinate system but leaves its centre behind. By this means the two 'singularities' of the black hole are produced, the centre of the moved sphere, now thought to be an event horizon, and the left behind centre at the origin of coordinates, thought to be the 'physical singularity'. (See [2]). Analytically speaking, the violation of geometry manifests in black hole theory as the requirement that the absolute value of a real number must take on negative values – which is also impossible. (See [3]).

The laws of thermodynamics require that temperature must always be an intensive thermodynamic property. To argue otherwise is a violation of both the 0th and 2nd laws of thermodynamics. The Hawking temperature of a black hole is however non-intensive, in violation of the laws of thermodynamics. So black hole thermodynamics is entirely nonsense. (See [4])

So their black hole does not exist; proven with common sense and high-school science. Yet they have managed to image that which does not exist. Of course they did - they have to justify their lucrative jobs and their vast grants of unaccountable public money.

For a comprehensive coverage of the frauds see [5], [6], and [7].

[1] Crothers, S.J., Black Hole Escape Velocity, Sky Scholar, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZbDLd42Uws

[2] Crothers, S.J., Black Hole Geometry Analyzed, Sky Scholar, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0-xCMZLUc2A&t=5s

[3] Crothers, S.J., On Corda's 'Clarification' of Schwarzschild's Solution, Hadronic Journal, Vol. 39, 2016, http://vixra.org/pdf/1602.0221v4.pdf

[4] Robitaille, P.-M., Gravitational Thermodynamics - Is it Science?https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mZ2F2Kw5-nQ

[5] Crothers, S.J., A Critical Analysis of LIGO's Recent Detection of Gravitational Waves Caused by Merging Black Holes, Hadronic Journal, n.3, Vol. 39, 2016, pp.271-302, http://vixra.org/pdf/1603.0127v5.pdf

[6] Crothers, S.J., LIGO -- Its Claims for Black Holes and Gravitational Waves | EU2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ev10ywLFq6E&t=496s

[7] Crothers, S.J., Gravitational Waves: Propagation Speed is Co-ordinate Dependent, Poster Presentation, 2018 April APS Meeting, Columbus, Ohio, presented on 14th April 2018. http://vixra.org/pdf/1804.0399v1.pdf

  Stephen J. Crothers