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EDM - Electrical Discharge Machining    
     
Planetary scars   Lightning effect
   
The evidence for the electrical scarring of planetary surfaces is compelling, and yet conspicuously ignored by mainstream cosmology. These scars can be produced by both catastrophic events, and by more mundane EDM processes that can be witnessed today. A consistent theme has developed in mainstream circles, however. Whenever this evidence is discovered, it is described as surprising, and then explained away using an array of conventional, and very often contradictory, mechanisms. Parsimony goes out of the window when politics come into play. The more simple and verifiable electrical hypotheses are thus overlooked, and the inertia of prior belief prevails, at least for the time being.  
     
How?    
     

Catastrophic events during the past account for many of the surface features which defy conventional explanations. During periods of upheaval and instability, planetary orbits may have been perturbed, and when coming into relatively close contact, their plasma sheathes would have interacted. Any electrical differentials naturally tried to establish equilibium.

To begin with, electrical atmospheric phenomena would have intensified (auroras and lightning), and before long violent discharges, aka huge sparks, resulted. Hence the 'Thunderbolts of The Gods'. Things got a little bit tempestuous, to say the least. Significant planets are unlikely to have actually collided, of course, as electrical forces are both attractive and repulsive.

Furthermore, electrical phenomena are scaleable over at least 14 scales of magnitude. Effects which are measured in millimetres in the laboratory can therefore measure vast distances across space and on the surface of planets.

Today we see these phenomena on a far less violent scale, and they are referred to as EDM -- Electrical Discharge Machining. The theory actually suffers from an embarrasment of riches, and many enigmatic planetary features can and have been produced in the laboratory.

 
Rilles on Europa
 
Lightning rille
     
The evidence    
     

Scars very similar to those pictured in the right hand column of this page appear on a number of different planets. Such scars tend to defy traditional explanations. For example.

. Many craters tend to be almost perfectly spherical. Impact craters very rarely achieve this symmetry. Furthermore, if we look at the craters on the moon, for example, why do the vast majority of impacts appear to have been created by something emanating from directly above, and not at randomn angles as you might expect from projectiles moving through space?
. Some of the craters exhibit internal spiral patterns. Impact craters don't do this.
. Crater chains often appear in straight lines. The chances of this happening are close to zero.
. Channels begin and end out of nowhere.
. Channels tend to be predominantly flat floored, ending with steep walls.
. Channels often criss-cross, ignoring pre-existing channels. Liquids don't do this.
. Channels often run up hill. Again, liquids don't tend to do this.
. Many planetary rilles run for thousands of miles in almost straight lines or wave like patterns.
. Missing debris. Assuming some of the features are produced by traditional methods, where did the material that has been removed go to?

Most of these electrical features are reproducible in the lab (see EU Geology page).

Sometimes these features are explained away as lava flows, or collapsed lave tubes, even where there is little evidence for any other volcanic activity. Wind and water may also be cited, but typically the planets concerned are supposed to be dry, or at least have been for many millions of years.

It is also interesting to note that many meteorites hit the earth without producing craters, and that we find many craters with no evidence of any impact!

 
'Weld like' scars
 
Planetary scars
     
Fulgamites    
     

Fulgamites are a form of lightning blister. Olympus Mons on Mars, pictured right, is often called the biggest volcanoe in the solar system, although it defies being categorised as such. It's taller than three Mount Everest's and extremely wide. The trouble is, it's almost as flat as a pancake, and its edges end abruptly.

Lightning on Earth normally consists of a number of strokes in quick succession that follow the same ionized path. The discharge is often followed by successive lesser strokes that can excavate overlapping pits on the top of the fulgamite. This pattern is clearly seen as the six overlapping circular craters at the summit of Olympus Mons.

  Olympus Mons, Mars
     
Crater Chains    
     

The chances of an impacting body breaking up to form a neat line of craters is very slim. The chances of this happening with the frequency that we see is practically zero. The crater chain pictured right is one of many that can be seen on Gannymede, a moon of Jupiter.

Crater chains result from electric arcs passing over a cathode surface. With slight variations in the current, the arc may cut a trench instead of jumping from one crater to the next. Because electrical arcs lift material from the surface, excavations are left relatively clean. The 'collapsed lava tube' explanation fails in this important respect. 'Missing debris' is just one defining characteristic that distinguishes electrical erosion from mechanical processes. These processes have been replicated in the laboratory.

  Crater chain
     
Fulgurites    
     

These anomalous formations appear in the Arrhenius Region of Mars, some 36,000 square kilometers of terrain in the southern hemisphere. Planetary scientists have expressed wonderment over these improbable formations, and can only guess at how to account for them. The weird 'wormlike' formations have even provoked speculation about 'artificial tubes' beneath the surface.

The existence of these glassified ridges or fulgurites is a crucial prediction of the Electric Universe. The transverse coronal filaments of lightning, always perpendicular to the direction of a primary discharge, can form and fuse such characteristic ripples inside a primary channel.

Some followers of the alien hypothesis have cited fulgurites as strong evidence to support their view, but again the EU theory is the more economical.

  Fulgurites
     
Hexagonal Craters    
     

Why do we see so many hexagonal shaped craters on planetary surfaces? Could impacts really achieve this? The hexagonal patterns at the poles of Saturn recently came as a big surprise to consensus science. These are almost certainly electrical in nature, as is the force that created the surprise warming at the same poles.

It is almost certainly EM forces which create the vast majority of irregular polygon shapes.

  Hexgonal crater
     
Tethys    
     

This improbably huge crater on Tethys, a moon of Saturn, also takes on a hexagonal format. The moon is only 1000 km in diameter, and yet this hexaganol crater is 450 km across! How could any impact capable of creating such a massive crater fail to shatter the moon?

"Whatever struck Tethys in the distant past probably should have shattered it into pieces ... but didn't."
Universetoday.com

  Tethys
     
Phobos    
     

Phobos, a moon of Mars, demonstrates many of the anomalous features under discussion, from numerous crater chains to bizarre and huge craters.

Again, how could any impact capable of creating such a massive crater fail to shatter the moon? The electrical hypothesis resolves many such enigmas that remain inexplicable by purely mechanical means.

  Phobos
     
The Iapetus ridge    
     

In 2007 the Cassini mission revealed numerous surprising features on the third largest moon of Saturn, Iapetus, not the least of which was the massive equatorial ridge running around three-quarters of it. This ridge is reminiscent of several types of 'concretion' found on Earth, and specifically the Moqui marbles found in the deserts of Utahagain, again suggesting an electrical origin. See also Martian Blueberries, below.

Although it is a small moon with a dimater of 1436 km, Iapetus also has several extremely large craters, one of which exhibits a distinct bulge in the center.

  Iapetus
     
Rilles    
     

Another moon of Jupiter, Europa, shows more interesting features that remain mysterious to the mainstream. High-resolution photographs of the surface show that the web of grooves and channels cannot possibly be the surface 'fractures' originally cited. Scientists were also surprised by the lack of craters on Europa given that Jupiter is considered the 'vacuum cleaner' of the solar system. Meteorites should have been pulled into a collision course.

Not only do many of the larger channels not look anything like fractures, they are also smoothly cut, and the force which created them has disregarded the presence of previous channels, often producing a constant channel width for more than a thousand kilometres.

These are consistent with an electrical viewpoint. An electrical discharge, flowing across the surface, has an associated magnetic field which 'pinches' into a narrow filament and tends to draw concurrent filaments into parallel alignment.

  Rilles
     
Martian Blueberries    
     
When the Mars Rover, Opportunity, landed in a small crater on the Martian surface it photographed a profusion of features that could change our ideas about the recent history of the solar system. Scattered around the crater were Blueberry sized spherules. Their blue-grey colour set them apart from the reddish hue of the Martian surface, and gave them their name.

They have been identified as 'hematite concretions', an iron-rich mineral which is the primary constituent of the soil surrounding them. A Plasma physicist, CJ Ransom of Vemasat Laboratories, has successfully reproduced them in the laboratory.

If the concretions can only be reproduced by electrical discharge, as seems likely, this could lay the foundation for a radical reassessment of planetary geology.

  Martian Blueberries
     
The Moon    
     

The prominent Tycho crater on the southern hemsiphere of our moon demonstrates some of the features described above, and it is interesting to note that the probable cause was recognised as early as 1903. In his book, The Moon, W. H. Pickering suggested that electrical effects could account for the narrow paths of Tycho’s 'rays', and he drew a direct comparison to the streamers seen in auroral displays.

Also, more than forty years ago, the British journal, Spaceflight (January 7, 1965), published the work of Brian J. Ford, an amateur astronomer, who suggested that most of the lunar craters were carved by cosmic electrical discharge. In his laboratory experiments Ford used spark-machining apparatus to reproduce some of the most puzzling lunar features, including craters with central peaks, small craters perched on the high rims of larger craters, and crater chains. He also observed that the ratio of large to small craters on the Moon matched the ratio seen in electrical arcing.

True to form, however, this evidence of electrical activity in space has been ignored because it finds no place in the curricula of astronomers and geologists. Gravitational Cosmology provides their flawed premise.

  The Tycho crater
     
Spiders from Mars    
     

The discovery of complex dendritic networks at the south pole of Mars has left NASA scientists scrambling for answers. Yet again, they defy traditional textbook explanations, not least because they 'work against' gravity, branch radially from a center (which excludes a drainage function), and form identical shapes irrespective of the terrain. Often, a single ravine is seen moving both up and downhill, and many of the patterns occur on a consistent incline.

Common sense screams out the success of the electrical hypothesis, but planetary scientists continue to hammer square pegs into round holes! These networks show the consistent form of classical electrical discharge, the Lichtenburg figure.

There is a further problem. A number of these spiders seem to emerge and disappear seasonally. One recent study, developed in consultation with the famous sci-fi writer, Arthur C. Clark, suggested that these comings and goings represent one of the most profound mysteries of planetary science, and even speculated a biological cause. NASA’s ignorance of EDM remains a continuing disservice to the public who fund them.

  Spiders from Mars
     
Martian Dust Devils    
     

Pictured right is a Dust Devil etching its way across the surface of Mars. Lightning and various other electrical phenomena on our neighbouring planets have come as a huge shock to mainstream science, if you'll pardon the pun.

See electric weather for further details.

Given the lack of moisture and atmosphere on Mars, not to mention the visible glow, electrical interaction again seems the most likely explanation.

  Martian Dust Devil
     
Rilles and Spills, and dendritic patterns. A summation    
     

The term rille (German for 'groove') is typically used to describe the long, narrow depressions on the surface of the Moon and other planets that resemble channels. These are generally assumed to have been created by water or lava flows, even where the evidence for either is lacking. These channels, of course, can also be created by electrical events. Admittedly, it can be difficult to differentiate between Lichtenberg figures and liquid channels given their many visual similarities.

On a recent Mars mission, instruments on the Phoenix lander found that the soil in around many of the rilles was nonconductive ... indicating no water.

While it is still possible that there are water and ice deposits somewhere on Mars, they were most likely formed during the catastrophic events that dramatically altered its surface. It is now looking increasingly likely that plasma discharges in the form of gigantic and spectacular lightning (aka the Thunderbolts of the Gods) created the sinuous rilles, flat-floored craters, 'railroad track' patterns in canyons (as in the image right), intersecting gullies, giant mesas, and the many accompanying lichtenburg 'whiskers' and various formations mentioned above.

Branching rilles are generally referred to as dendritic patterns. Sometimes they may have been created by a combination of electricity and liquid flow, water or lava, simultaneosuly or over time. The Spiders on Mars mentioned above are dendritic patterns produced by electrical means.

  Rilles
     
Electric Jets on Io defy volcanic speculations    
     
Plumes on Jupiter’s moon Io -- some are hundreds of kilometers high -- reveal features akin to those of laboratory discharge.

This photograph, taken by the Galileo space craft, is one of many images showing plumes of plasma jetting from the surface of Jupiter's closest moon. The first to suggest that these plumes were electrical discharge in nature was Cornell University astrophysicist Thomas Gold, whose article on the "Electric Origin of the Outburst on Io," was published in the journal Science, November 30, 1979. In 1987 Gold's interpretation was supported by plasma physicists Alex Dessler and Anthony Peratt in an article published in the journal Astrophysics and Space Science. Dessler and Peratt observed that both the filamentary penumbra and the convergence of ejecta into well-defined rings are characteristic plasma discharge effects that have no volcanic counterpart.

Furthermore, the plumes have been found to be hotter than lava on Earth and, more surprsinigly still, the alleged 'volcanoes' have moved tens of kilometers in a few years. These are all predictable features of the electric model. In fact, Io and Jupiter are now known to be connected by a 'flux tube' that contains an electric current of at least 5,000,000 amps generating trillions of watts of power!

  Io plumes