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Some of the implications of Plasma Cosmology    
Shift happens!    

It seems that a perspective shift may be required before the paradigm can do likewise.

From a conventional perspective, planets and stars are seen as tiny dots of matter punctuating the vast 'emptiness' of space. In this dubious model gravity and inertia dominate, albeit with a little magnetism stirred into the equations now and again.

Plasma Cosmology turns this perspective on its head.

In reality 'empty' space is actually a vast sea of Plasma, and dominated by electromagnetic forces. The tiny dots of matter are formed by the Z-pinch effect (see technical), and surrounded by protective sheathes or Double Layers (again, see technical).

"In order to understand the phenomena in a certain plasma region, it is necessary to map not only the magnetic but also the electric field and the electric currents." Hannes Alfven

Space is filled with a network of currents which transfer energy and momentum over vast distances. The currents have a tendency to pinch into filaments which give rise to cellular structures. These are separated by capacitor-like double layers, producing plasma phenomena which are characterized by conditions of non-isotropy, discontinuity and inhomogeneity.

Galaxies are thus expected to lie like pearl beads on a filamentary necklace, as is observed.

  The filamentary universe
EM versus Gravity    

Contrast the plasma model, capable of being reproduced in straightforward simulations, with the Nebular hypothesis -- the idea that vast clouds of dust produced by the BB eventually accreted to form planets and stars. The latter relies almost entirely on gravity, and that most famous of Free Variables -- Time. It ignores the existence of plasma and its electrodynamic properties!

Gravitational forces are only attractive, whereas electromagnetic forces are both attractive and repulsive, and 10^39 stronger! They both vary inversely with the square of the distance.

EM forces are known to produce the spheroid, toroid, and spiral structures that we witness throughout the universe. Gravity is NOT the only force at work.

Misconception #1

"Sure, the electric force is much stronger than gravity at the sub-atomic level, but at the macrocosmic level gravity is incomparably more powerful than electricity.”

Martin Rees compares the electrostatic forces between two submicroscopic charged particles with the force of gravitational attraction between two Jupiter-sized masses and makes the statement above. Talk about comparing apples and oranges! By this method we could say: “Compare the power of the water coming over Niagara Falls with the power emitted by the average incandescent flashlight bulb – see – falling water is much more powerful than electricity.” Such incompatible comparisons defy clarification.

Don Scott, retired professor of Electrical Engineering, adds the following:
"This assertion is like saying gravity affects elephants more than microbes. It is simply invalid. “For two protons, the electrostatic force of repulsion between them is 1.2x10^36 times the force of their gravitational attraction. The electrostatic repulsion between two electrons is 4.2x10^42 times their gravitational attraction. For one proton and one electron, the electrostatic force of attraction between them is 2.2x10^39 times the force of their gravitational attraction.” The Electric Sky (TES)

  Spiral galaxy
Matters of no little importance    

Standard scientific texts focus on just three states of matter -- solids, liquids, and gases. This is no small omission. Not only should Plasma be added to this list, but it should take first place, not least because of the fact that it constitutes 99% of the known Universe! Space travel has confirmed this fact. It is misleading to describe plasma as an ionized gas when it is in fact a state in its own right.

Given the dominance of Plasma in the universe, it seems more sensible to consider solids as cooled Plasma (Or matter with energy removed), as opposed to highly energised or heated matter.

Moreover, because of the ability of Plasma to interact with electromagnetic forces, it is capable of forming far more complex structures than those seen in solids, liquids, or gases.

Plasma is for everyone as Anthony Perratt, a leading contemporary Astrophysicist, is wont to say.


“[T]he professional tends to interpret the pictures by using the theory he was taught while the amateur tries to use the picture to arrive at a theory” Halton Arp, Seeing Red

Houston, we have a problem!    

Within the limited confines of our own backyard, the Solar System, existing gravitational models seem to be holding-up. We have succeeded in sending probes to neighbouring planets and, despite the crashes and anomalous accelerations that have afflicted many space programs, the Huygens mission recently scored a spectacular success -- landing on Titan, a moon of Saturn, despite unexpected atmospheric conditions.

It should be noted, however, that g models begin to break down when we look further a field. Gravity, of course, is generally described as a property of mass. The trouble is that we have not discovered enough mass in our own galaxy, The Milky Way, to account for its fortunate tendency not to disintegrate.

The existence of mysterious Dark Matter is hypothesised to account for this shortfall in mass, but it is yet to be discovered despite extensive searches. Its existence is only inferred on the basis that g models 'must be' correct. The alternatives raise too many uncomfortable questions!

Furthermore, Dark Matter is no small kludge factor -- it is alleged to account for between 20% to 99% of the universe, depending on which accounts you read! This has lead to further problems in relation to expansion models, and another hypothetical, Dark Energy, has been invented to overcome these. In summation, Dark Matter and Dark Energy add up to the blank cheques that postpone the falsification of bankrupt theories.

Moreover, it can be shown that electromagnetic forces are several orders of magnitude greater than the gravitational forces, especially in certain types of plasma, and also that electromagnetic forces can have a longer range. On the largest scales, evidence that plasmas exhibit external forces on physical objects such as galaxies is the same as that which has lead standard model researchers to postulate dark matter and dark energy. Need anymore be said?


"It is an embarrassment that the dominant forms of matter in the universe remain hypothetical." Jim Peebles, Princeton Cosmologist


"...past 90% it [Dark Matter] begins to make observations irrelevant." Halton Arp

The space tether experiment    

In 1996, in a joint venture between the US and Italy, a large spherical satellite was deployed from the US space shuttle at the end of a conducting cable (tether) over 12 miles long. The idea was to let the shuttle drag the tether across the Earth's magnetic field, producing one part of a dynamo circuit. The return current, from the shuttle to the payload, would flow via the Earth's ionosphere.

The deployment was almost complete when things went wrong. The tether suddenly broke free, and it took some smart detective work to discover the cause. The nature of the break suggested it was not caused by excessive tension, but that a strong electric current had melted the tether.

  "In the beginning was the Plasma." Hannes Alfven
As Above ... So Below    

It is often said that there is no reason to believe that the universe knows about us, or that our solar system knows about the universe. In this purely mechanistic view, contradictory evidence is generally explained away as merely coincidental.

See this article from www.astronomy.com
Anomalies in CMB measurements seem to suggest that our solar system reacts to conditions outside it, which was not expected, but this situation is dismissed as ... coincidental.

Plasma Cosmology promotes a more holistic view of the universe. This is a profound differentiation, and permits many theories previously excluded in a purely mechanistic gravity-dominated universe. Bodies immersed in plasma are not isolated -- they are connected by circuits.

  "When Kepler found his long-cherished belief did not agree with the most precise observation, he accepted the uncomfortable fact. He preferred the hard truth to his dearest illusions; that is the heart of science." Carl Sagan

The Dynamic Universe


The Plasma Universe is an extremely dynamic, quasi Steady-State Universe. It may seem strange to consider Galaxies lasting billions of years as mere transient phenomena, but this is how it is. Planets, Stars and Galaxies are born and die. The universe is cyclical!

In the plasma model, super clusters, clusters and galaxies are formed from magnetically confined plasma vortex filaments. The plasma cosmology approach can easily accommodate large scale structures, and in fact predicts them. Since the plasma approach hypothesises no theoretical starting point, the amount of time necessary for large-scale structures presents no problem for the theory.

  "The universe is an unending transformation in flux whose previous states we are not privileged to know." David Bohm
The Queen of The Sciences    
Because Cosmology is considered the Queen of the Sciences, it provides the building blocks for so many other scientific disciplines, and this seems to add to the inertia against change. A new approach to cosmology will require a reassessment in most if not all scientific disciplines!